Friday, March 20, 2020
The Limitations in Greek Citizenship and Democracy essays According to most present-day historians that focus on the political and social realms of ancient Greece, the implementation of the concept of citizenship as the basis for the city-state (polis) and the extension of citizen status to all free-born members of the community is most closely related to the Athenians who desired to form a free society in the ancient world with democracy as its foundation. In Athens, citizenship carried certain legal rights, such as access to courts to resolve disputes, protection against enslavement by kidnapping and participation in the religious and cultural life of the polis. It also implied participation in politics, although the degree of participation open to the poorest men varied among different city-states. The ability to hold office, for example, could be limited in some cases to owners of a certain amount of property or wealth. But most importantly, citizen status distinguished free men and women from slaves and foreigners; thus, even the poor had a distinction that set themselves apart from these groups that were not given There were also other limitations in regard to Athenian citizenship, for the incompleteness of the equality that under laid the political structure of the polis was most prominent as to status of citizen women who generally had an identity, social status and local rights that were denied slaves and foreigners. Citizen women had access to courts in disputes over property and other legal matters, but they could not represent themselves and had to have men speak for their interests, a requirement that reveals their inequality under the law. in contrast, all male citizens, regardless 2 eventually entitled to attend, speak in, and cast a vote in the communal assemblies in which policy decisions for the polis were made and drafte ...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Colloquial Does Not Have to Equate with Ignorant Colloquial Does Not Have to Equate with Ignorant Colloquial Does Not Have to Equate with Ignorant By Maeve Maddox Ive written more than one post criticizing non-standard usage on television and will probably write more. A frequent opinion among the wonderful readers who take the time to comment is that I may have unreasonable expectations regarding the use of standard English on television. One recent comment especially gave me pause: the misuse of pronouns is valid because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how people speak. It would sound odd to most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ears if a Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ character in a show spoke correctly rather than with the colloquialisms and oddities that have become intrinsic to spoken English. Can this be true? Is there some kind of automatic disconnect between correct speech and colloquial speech? I dont think so. Colloquial speech is informal, but it is not of necessity ungrammatical. Trying to define such terms as colloquialism is always dangerous, especially nowadays when anti-authoritarianism is the dominant philosophy. I think most of us would probably agree with these definitions of colloquialism: an expression considered more appropriate to familiar conversation than to formal speech or to formal writing Websters Unabridged Dictionary [words or expressions] characteristic of or only appropriate for ordinary, familiar or informal conversation rather than formal speech or writing. Wikipedia Its not always easy to distinguish between colloquialisms, regionalisms, and slang. For example: Yall is a common expression in regional dialects, but it can also be considered a colloquialism since it is universally understood by most English speakers. Catch you later may be slang, but if we continue to use it, it will be a colloquialism. Me and my mother went to the cabin that summer is just bad English. We can relax our speech without trashing conventional grammatical structure. I grant you that To whom do you wish to speak? sounds stilted, but My mother and I went to the cabin that summer sounds, wellnormal. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:45 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"FoodÃ¢â¬ Comma Before ButTreatment of Words That Include Ã¢â¬Å"SelfÃ¢â¬
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Isaiah verse 1.1-2.1 - Research Paper Example The book and the verses even depicts about the different displays of cruelty and wickedness practiced by the kings on the Jewish followers. The different developments of the books hence reflect on the political and social developments that have been evident within the kingship of Jerusalem. Furthermore, the book develops and provides a better insight towards the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"LordÃ¢â¬ is for the overall universe and is not secluded for a particular class or race. Commendably, in the book the prophet develops a better understanding towards the sins that may be bestowed on the evildoers or the cruel people of the earth (Broyles & Evans, 1997). With this emphasis, the research provides an in depth understanding of the different approaches and diverse statements provided by the prophet are developing a better understanding of the wickedness of the people that has been prominent within the society. The diverse needs of the research attempt developing an effective understanding towards the wrath of God that may fall upon people owing to their improper practices according to the verses in Isaiah 1.1-1.2. In the first verse, Isaiah depicts his views towards the different types of wicked approaches adopted by mankind for developing their lifestyle on the earth. The wicked approaches of mankind, with the political intention towards developing a hold on the society has been creating a strong negative impact on the social progression and a diverse impact on the social lifestyle of people. The prophet proclaims that this type of attributes will never be acceptable by God and would be dealt severely for such occurrences (Calvin & Calvin, 2000). Over the recent decades and centuries, human kind has always been indulged into some or the other kind of punishable offences that has been creating a degree of distress within the social system. This practices that were prominent within the Jewish society in Israel and Judah has been noted to be
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Ethics and Asylum Seekers in Australia - Essay Example The majority of the refugees ended up in the two Pacific Island nations which the Australian government hurriedly organized. Australian immigration official stated that at the time, there was an influx of illegal boat arrivals which pushed the federal parliamentary government of Australia to come up with the Ã¢â¬Å"Pacific Solution PolicyÃ¢â¬ in February of 2001. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s immigration department stated that in February 2002 there were 356 asylum seekers from Iraq mostly, whose status was being processed in the island of Manos in Papua New Guinea, and there were 1,159 refugees in Nauru which overall total is 1,500 asylum seekers. These Islands were happy to take these refugees in an exchange with the financial aid coming from Australia. Though there has been no official report on the figures it has been reported that the president of Nauru Rene Harris negotiated a $15m for the accommodation of more than 1000 asylum seekers (BBC Q&A, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"In the harshest border pol icy in the Westernized world, the Australian Navy was then deployed to intercept asylum-seekers at sea. The government also excised Australia's offshore islands from its immigration zone in order to deprive boat people of the right to claim asylumÃ¢â¬ ( Marks, 2007). Where do we draw the line on helping the unfortunate? What should be the guiding rule on welcoming and accepting people running for refuge in our more fortunate land? What are the human rights of an individual? The United Nations declaration of human rights proclaims the right: 1.) To life, to freedom from subjection, to torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, or to slavery, servitude or forced labor.2.To liberty and security of the person. 3.) To a fair trial. 4.) To freedom from retroactive criminal law or punishments. 5.) With respect to private and family life, home, and correspondence. 6.) To freedom of thought.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Amendments of Public Entertainments and Meetings Act (PMA) To whom it may concern, As a dutiful Singaporean citizen who is deeply concerned with the tidings of our local arts industry, I am writing in to exhort the Media Development Authority (MDA) to review the proposed amendments of the Public Entertainments and Meetings Act (PEMA) that was released on May 12th 2014. I also refer to Ms. Corrie TanÃ¢â¬â¢s article titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Art of Censorship in SingaporeÃ¢â¬ (The Straits Times, 7 June 2014). I understand that the aforementioned proposition seeks to establish a Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulatory partnershipÃ¢â¬ with local art practitioners by Ã¢â¬Å"empowering arts entertainment event organisers to classify their own performances whilst adhering to community standards and expectationsÃ¢â¬ (MDA, 2014a). Consequently, a new Arts Term Licensing Scheme which mandates the obligatory training of individual artists from local art companies by the MDA as qualified Ã¢â¬Å"content assessorsÃ¢â¬ for Ã¢â¬Å"self-classificationÃ¢â¬ has been edict. Whilst the general outlook of the said proposal may be well meaning in nature as it confers a window peek to MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s progressive shift toward the relegation of some of its authority over content classification to its relevant communities (The Straits Times, 10 June 2014), in this case, the arts to local art practitioners, a closer examination upon the various stratums underlying the scheme has left me exceedingly troubled as many fundamental assumptions rooted in its conception, albeit seemingly benign on paper, remains deeply problematic in both practice as well as in spirit. Accordingly, I note that the concepts of Ã¢â¬Å"self-classificationÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulationÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"empowermentÃ¢â¬ of the local arts industry as posited in the new scheme, falls on a highly erroneous continuum of prevarication as they have not been veritably demonstrated. The notion of Ã¢â¬Å"self-classificationÃ¢â¬ suggests that local art practitioners are granted with an autonomous, free-willed, and imperative role of contribution in the development and undertaking of the classification guidelines. Yet, such has been reflected otherwise in practice as the Ã¢â¬Å"classificationÃ¢â¬ of art works remain subjugated to the prescribed criterions solely ordained by the MDA, without assembling any prior consultations or discussions with art practitioners (Arts Engage, 2014a). In addition, Ã¢â¬Å"self-classificationÃ¢â¬ implies the absence of censorship wherein art works merely follow a catalogue of classification ratings and are never subjected to prohibition. However, the Ã¢â¬Å"Not Allowed for RatingsÃ¢â¬ category (MDA, 2014c) Ã¢â¬â in other words, a euphemism for censorship Ã¢â¬â runs contradictory to the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"self-classificationÃ¢â¬ . It seems that this new scheme by MDA is but a reinstatement of the same old perilous template of censorship in Singapore where authorities are conceived as the unequivocal Ã¢â¬Å"arbiters of tastesÃ¢â¬ (McGuigan, 1996), rather than trusting artists to be ethically, morally, or socially responsible, and that of my fellow SingaporeansÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity to judge an art work critically. Under the principles of classification published in the 2010 report by the Censorship Review Committee (CRC Report, 2010), it was stated that Ã¢â¬Å"classification boundaries must be set according to community standards determined via an engagement process involving the regulator, community, and the industry.Ã¢â¬ This suggests the presence of an open, transparent, and inclusive process of engagement amongst artists, authorities, and members of the public to determine the perimeters of classification Ã¢â¬â as in tandem with MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals of Ã¢â¬Å"consultationÃ¢â¬ and working closely with Ã¢â¬Å"expertise and perspectives of a wide spectrum of societyÃ¢â¬ (MDA, 2014b) and the purported notion of Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulationÃ¢â¬ . However, this is not reflected in truth as the new Arts Term Licensing Scheme which edicts artists to be trained by the MDA as Ã¢â¬Å"qualified content assessorsÃ¢â¬ is but a guise of the state policing the arts by proxy as these Ã¢â¬Å"content assessorsÃ¢â¬ are strictly tethered to executing MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s rules. Instead of creating an ingenuous engagement between art practitioners and the MDA where genuine partnership and shared responsibilities may be fostered, artists are merely subjugated as extensions of MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s censorships. This, I believe is not Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulationÃ¢â¬ , but a faÃ §ade for self-censorship. More notably, such a move resembles that of a Ã¢â¬Å"panopticonÃ¢â¬ surveillance (Foucault, 1977) with MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s pervasiveness at Ã¢â¬Å"discipliningÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"normalizingÃ¢â¬ artistic expression on both a macro and micro level by implanting seemingly innocuous Ã¢â¬Å"content assessorsÃ¢â¬ within the heart of art companies Ã¢â¬â so that whilst MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s presence appears to be incognito on the surface, their regulations still remain executed with stringency. Not only is this highly inimical to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s artistic innovation and creativity (Arts Engage, 2014b), I believe that the fear of non-conformance would fester like an insidious wound that ultimately undermines the development of our arts industry, and on a grandeur scale, the growth of our society as a harmonious whole Ã¢â¬â as it would not be instilled within my fellow Singaporeans recognize and acknowledge the varying nuances when it comes to the interpretation of art (Chee Meng, 2014). With such an intolerant perspective that fails to conceive art as an outset for constructive discourse, how then can our nation truly blossom into a Ã¢â¬Å"Global City of the ArtsÃ¢â¬ as our leaders have envisioned? Furthermore, it was acknowledged in the 2003 report of Censorship Review Committee that a Ã¢â¬Å"one-size-fits-allÃ¢â¬ paradigm of censorship is increasingly non-viable given the heterogeneous and ever-changing society of Singapore (CRC Report, 2003). Thus, it seems that this Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ approach by MDA is not only paradoxical, but terribly regressive. Additionally, whilst the MDA has stressed that the Arts Term Licensing Scheme is Ã¢â¬Å"optionalÃ¢â¬ suggesting that artists have a Ã¢â¬Å"choiceÃ¢â¬ in the matter, it appears that this is but a shrewd attempt by the authorities at veiling a false dichotomy to our art practitioners as they are essentially caught in between continuing the present regime where MDA issues all classifications and advisories, or that of a seemingly Ã¢â¬Å"differentÃ¢â¬ system that is inherently the same as the former since Ã¢â¬Å"content assessorsÃ¢â¬ are specially trained to heed MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s specifications. As such, I question MDAÃ¢â ¬â¢s sincerity at Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulationÃ¢â¬ and all of its supposed Ã¢â¬Å"idealsÃ¢â¬ of openness, engagement, inclusiveness, and transparency. In line with the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore which delineates that every Singaporean citizen possess the rights of freedom of speech (Attorney GeneralÃ¢â¬â¢s Chambers, 2010) Ã¢â¬â in this case, the Ã¢â¬Å"speechÃ¢â¬ is expressed via the modus of art Ã¢â¬â MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s new scheme appears to be a flagrant violation of that democracy and with it, the concept of a Ã¢â¬Å"public sphereÃ¢â¬ (Habermas, 1964) where there an open space that allows for the exploration of ideas free from overbearing restrictions. If our nation is truly a democratic society, why then is the MDA imposing such harsh regulations of self-censorship upon our artists who simply yearns for art as a medium of expression, and that of mine, and my fellow SingaporeanÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of choice in enjoying art in all its various forms? By limiting the creations of artists, allowing audiences to be only be granted access to what is deemed as Ã¢â¬Å"appropriate contentÃ¢â¬ , and creating a rift of division between Ã¢â¬Å"content assessorsÃ¢â¬ and their colleagues all in the name of Ã¢â¬Å"public goodÃ¢â¬ , is the MDA genuinely Ã¢â¬Å"protectingÃ¢â¬ social harmony, or is this simply a circumvented attempt at regulating a power relationship between us citizens and the state (McGuigan, 1996). In a similar vein, MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s espoused notion of Ã¢â¬Å"empoweringÃ¢â¬ art practitioners by according them the prerogative in deciding the classification of their art works remains highly contentious as in practice, artists are subjugated to the strict adherence of MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s policing mechanisms by proxy and consequently, are renounced of any leeway to exercise their personal liberties. How then are our art practitioners Ã¢â¬Å"empoweredÃ¢â¬ by the new scheme? Not only is this positioning of the Arts Term Licensing Scheme prevaricating to artists, it also misleads the general public into believing that the new scheme should be embraced unequivocally as it seemingly liberates our artists. As such, it seems that this assertion of Ã¢â¬Å"empowermentÃ¢â¬ is naught but a surreptitious attempt by the MDA at egregiously eluding all of the said problems underlying self-censorship as the scheme constructs a delusory appearance Ã¢â¬â resembling that of a Ã¢â¬Å"pseudo-publicÃ¢â ¬ sphere as postulated by Habermas (1964) Ã¢â¬â where decisions seem to be Ã¢â¬Å"personallyÃ¢â¬ dictated by artists (i.e. public) and are seemingly Ã¢â¬Å"independentÃ¢â¬ of MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s (i.e. authorityÃ¢â¬â¢s) intrusiveness. It is thus, disappointing to note that whilst the MDA advocates values of integrity (MDA, 2014b), such has been demonstrated otherwise in this case. More eminently, the schemeÃ¢â¬â¢s postulated idea that artists are to face harsh punishments including a $5,000 penalty for Ã¢â¬Å"non-complianceÃ¢â¬ to MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations simply nullifies any notions of Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulatory partnershipÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"empowermentÃ¢â¬ , whilst invoking an undercurrent of fear that only aggrandizes self-censorship. This, I believe is tantamount to regulative censorship of punitive state sanction taking on the faÃ §ade of constitutive censorship (Jansen, 1991) where it appears that our artists are merely Ã¢â¬Å"self-regulatingÃ¢â¬ . With the encroachment of hefty penalties associated with Ã¢â¬Å"misclassificationÃ¢â¬ , and MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of clarity upon the assessment and appeal processes, what then is of MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s assistant chief executive, Mr. Christopher NgÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that authorities would be Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable and fairÃ¢â¬ (Chee Meng, 2014) in the evaluation such a situation? Consequently, it also seems that this new s cheme has evinced upon an underlying distrusts of art practitioners within our society Ã¢â¬â as if artists are subversive individuals to be blot away. This, in turn, has perpetuated a fabricated sense of dichotomy of Ã¢â¬Å"artists versus communityÃ¢â¬ , where in truth, our artists and art practitioners are also fellow citizens, parents, Ã¢â¬Å"heart landersÃ¢â¬ , and are very much part of Singapore and our community at large (Arts Engage, 2014a) . Instead of creating an unnecessary chasm between artists, the general public, and the authorities, as reflected in the present paradigm where the MDA is seen to be the Ã¢â¬Å"mediatorÃ¢â¬ between disgruntled members of the public and a group of seemingly seditious artists that warrants to be Ã¢â¬Å"subduedÃ¢â¬ , it would be that much more purposeful for the growth of our nation, communities, and our people if we could see ourselves as a collective whole and reconcile our differences through an open, shared discourse, as opposed to mere coercion by proxy. Whilst I understand the imperativeness of MDAÃ¢â¬â¢s advisories in aiding audiences to make better informed choices, it is equally important to underscore that such classifications should really be meant as a general Ã¢â¬Å"cautionÃ¢â¬ , and that delving beyond that into micro-managing the entirety of an art work only serves to backfire as not only does it impugn upon artistic integrity and the true spirit of artistic endeav our (Arts Engage, 2014a), it ultimately renders our artistic practices bleak and sterile. Rather than imposing such stringent aseptic rules, we ought to be encouraging a greater degree of sophistication and open-minded appreciation of the arts amongst the public such that it is imbued within our society the capacity to recognize that there is always more than a single Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ way in which the arts may relate to us (Chee Meng, 2014). If we could devote our efforts into nurturing a greater pool of art critics Ã¢â¬â be it in terms of adept professionals or greenhorn amateurs Ã¢â¬â in lieu of Ã¢â¬Å"content assessorsÃ¢â¬ , we would then be able to engage in a much more active and meaningful discourse on the merits of our artistic output which I believe, would assist in establishing that much needed breadth of an open, receptive, and constructive dialogue between our artists and the MDA authorities, consequently forging an improved relationship of trust and respect that would be beneficent to all. Perhaps, a system of regulation that entails an open, consistent, and transparent process, in which discussions may be laid bare for public critique, whose jurisdiction are composed of knowledgeable, publicly-informed, and impartial members principled upon an arms-length approach from any political interests, and whose decision-making processes are periodically subjected to review by an independent body, would better serve to inspire confidence not only from our artists, but within that of my fellow Singaporeans to both the MDA authorities and our local arts industry, as well as across governments (Arts Engage, 2014b). This, I strongly assert is one of the many fundamental steps that we must take together if the MDA genuinely seeks to foster a Ã¢â¬Å"co-regulatoryÃ¢â¬ partnership that Ã¢â¬Å"empowersÃ¢â¬ our art practitioners and audiences alike. Indeed, the arts should be appreciated in all of its variegated diversity, fluidity, and sublime nuances Ã¢â¬â that it is an inherent part and parcel of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual and emotional growth that cannot be merely subjugated or predetermined by those contending privileged tastes or moral claims. Once again, I sincerely implore the relevant MDA authorities reconsider the proposed amendments of PEMA 2014, and to engage with representative citizen bodies as well as artists in another round of consultations before officially implementing the new scheme. I look forward to hearing from you, Thank you. Yours sincerely, Karen Lim.
Friday, January 17, 2020
A Story Creates a Strong Power: Adichie and KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Critiques of the Power of the Story, especially the Single Story Many stories matter to our lives and our ways of thinking. A story is the only way to activate part of our brain and then make the listeners turn the story into their own idea and experience (Widrich 4). As we know, our lives and our cultures are composed of many overlapping stories. When we are being told a story, things change dramatically. Once we have heard a story, we may always make it as our own knowledge.Then we would like to retell this story to others by verbal form, or turn it into a show or a movie. Every time we retell a story, we like to change some details into what we want or the way we understand. As a result, after the story has being retold a thousand times, the story may be changed into a different story. If we take in all the stories we have heard, then we might risk a misunderstanding adventure. Think about that: if our president gives a spe ech without any researches and just from othersÃ¢â¬â¢ stories, then how would people think about him. His speech would just be a joke, and will lose credibility.Therefore, we need to be very careful about the story we heard and the story we are going to tell others, especially if it is a single story. In some cases, the dominant story often becomes a single story, which makes the story be curious and dangerous. Chimamanda Adichie and Thomas King both showed us the importance of the story and the danger of a single story. They showed that the single story makes the differences in people stand out. In Chimamanda AdichieÃ¢â¬â¢s Tedtalk, Ã¢â¬Å"The Danger of Single Story,Ã¢â¬ she begins by telling us a story about what she would think about reading a novel as a child.She would then write stories that were similar to the foreign stories she had read, which contained white skinned children with blue eyes who were nothing like her. Until she found African stories is when she realize d that people like her could be in stories (Adichie). Many times, we would feel the same way as Adichie felt. Stories have a power to set us in a dangerous opinion when we are talking about countries, nationalities, religions or any human group. If we hear or read stories about a part of the world, we would tend to perceive that part of the world as the stories describe the whole orld. For example, Chimamanda Adichie eloquently tells us if she had not grown up in Nigeria and if all she knew about Africa were from popular images, she too would think that Africa was a place of beautiful landscapes, beautiful animals, and incomprehensible people fighting senseless wars, dying of poverty and AIDS, unable to speak for themselves, and waiting to be saved by a kind, white foreigner (Adichie). However, how many of us hold the same definitions and images as AdichieÃ¢â¬â¢s story of Africa? Instead, many people continue to be fed the other side of those stories.Those stories describe Arica a s a continent that is full of poverty, disease and the constant fighting. Thus, those stories we receive make us feel certain emotions, like pity, toward the people that live in those places. As Adichie said that stories have been used to Ã¢â¬Å"dispossess and to malign but stories can also be used to empower and to humanize. Stories can break the dignity of the people, but stories can also repair that broken dignityÃ¢â¬ (Adichie). A story is endowed with a very story power. Adichie also warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding.She said that Ã¢â¬Å"the single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only storyÃ¢â¬ (Adichie). When hearing a story, the invaluable lesson is that by only hearing a fraction of the truth (whether in the media, in school, or in popular culture), we are creating damaging misr epresentations. The reason is that Ã¢â¬Å"when we show people as one thing, as only one thing, over and over again and that is what they becomeÃ¢â¬ (Adichie). That is the consequence of the single story about a person, place, or issue.A single story is an incomplete description and it robs people of dignity and emphasizes how different people are. On the contrary, by engaging with all the stories of a person, place, or issue, the trap of a single story can be avoided. Adichie could have looked at the Mexican and the U. S. side of the immigration issue, so she would have balanced the stories and not fallen into the single story trap. Anything we have experienced, we can get others to experience the same. By simply telling as story, the world would plant ideas, thoughts and emotions into peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind.That is the reason why story is very powerful and we all need to be careful about every story. In the Truth about Stories, novelist Thomas King explored how stories identify wh o we are and how we understand and interact with other people. From personal experiences to creation stories, King illustrate how stories have shaped and continue to shape our societies, as well as our personal mythologies and therefore our choices in life. He begins with the story about the earth and how it floats in space on the back of a turtle.People was been told that the earth was on the back of a turtle and there were infinite turtles below that turtle (King 1). It is a single story for us, but it is also very powerful for us for the reason that we could never forget this story even though it is not reality for some people, while it is a belief for others. Ã¢â¬Å"The truth about stories is that thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all we areÃ¢â¬ (King 2), no matter they are fairy tales or nonfiction. A true story shows us our true world; a fairy tale leaves us with the hope that we can create a better world.KingÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, for example, was living in an era when women were not welcome in th e workforce. After her husband left their family alone, she had to be Ã¢â¬Å"visibleÃ¢â¬ and self-supporting as a man. She worked very hard among a manÃ¢â¬â¢s world, but she was treated unfair. When she went to her supervisor for an answer on unequal treatment, she was told that if her work was good, she would get promoted at the end of the first year. Then she waited and waited for many years, and that year never came up. However she still believed that Ã¢â¬Å"the world as a good place where good deeds should beget good rewardsÃ¢â¬ (King 4) was possible (King 2-4).It is the story that forced her how her life would be. It is also the story that she believed that gave her hope and energy to fight back the unfortunately life. The truth is that every story is endowed with power. As for KingÃ¢â¬â¢s father, it was another different story. King never knew why his father left his family, but his brother told their family the truth that his father had another family in another pla ce. King would never forgive his father for deserting him and his family, so he told people that his father was dead.As King said, Ã¢â¬Å"a part of [him] had never been able to move past these stories, a part of [him] would be chained to these stories as long as [he lives]Ã¢â¬ (King 5-9). This story shows us how stories can control our lives and affect our minds. King was chained to this single story of his father and could not move from it. No matter what reasons or other stories he had been told later as to why his father left him, he would not heal his painful heart. Thomas King warns us that we have to be careful with the stories we tell, and we have to watch out for the stories that we are told. Stories are wondrous thing, and they are dangerousÃ¢â¬ (King 9). Another example, King compares two creation stories: one Native and one the Christian genesis story. The Native story is very animated and full of dialog. King described in detail how the first woman fell from the sk y and created the world by cooperating with other animals. It places us right in the thick of things. The Christian creation story was just told and sterner. However, this Bible creation story has in many ways become the single story. For example, other cultures like mine, we do not think the human was created by Adam and Eve.We believe in another story about how Pangu opened with body made heaven, earth, moon and stars, and how NuWa used soil and water to create man. Most western people do not know the Native creation story and other culturesÃ¢â¬â¢ stories, thus see others as less than the Bible story (King 10-22). Ã¢â¬Å"If we believe one story to be sacred, we must see the other as secularÃ¢â¬ (King 25). We would be less likely to doubt a story that is stranger to us because new things can always attract us and make us feel curious and interested.Nonetheless, we would not believe sometimes sine the stories we learnt before have already rooted in our mind and can never be rep laced. This is the power of a story and how stories create a framework for understanding the world around us. When we tell stories to others that have really helped us shape our thinking and way of life, we can have the same effect on them too. The power of stories identifies who we are and who we are going to be, no matter what cultures we have or what religion we believe. We are not born to know everything. All we know is from many stories that have been told over and over again.The message of seeing a culture or people from many different points of view, or from many different stories, rings true once you spend time actually there in person. We have all experienced this, and might even be unaware of the line between what we believe to be true and what is actually authentic. As educated adults, it is sometimes difficult to get our news from various sources and perspectives. We can seek out stories on-line, speak with people from both sides and analyze issued using various sources to gain understanding of many angles that compose a subject.We all need to open our eyes and look at the whole picture not the single story, since stories can create power that push us into a dangerous situation. Works Cited Adichie, Chimamanda. Ã¢â¬Å"The Danger of the Single Story. Ã¢â¬ TED Talk, 2008. King, Thomas. Ã¢â¬Å"The truth about Stories. Ã¢â¬ Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2005. Widrich, Leo. Ã¢â¬Å"The Science of Storytelling: Why Telling a Story is the Most Powerful Way to Activate Our Brains. Ã¢â¬ Communication, what storytelling does to our brains, Dec 5, 2012.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REWARDS AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION The study examined the influence of rewards (payment, promotion, recognition and benefits) on employee work motivation. Subjects for the study consisted of one hundred and sixty seven employees of commercial banks of Kohat, Pakistan. Data for the study were gathered through the administration of questionnaire. The data collected was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using Ã¢â¬Å"Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Analysis of Variance,Ã¢â¬ all the findings were tested at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. The results obtained from the analysis showed that there existed strong relationship between rewards and employee motivation in commercial banks of Pakistan . TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Literature Review Carnige (1985) focused the human aspect of management as the author believes that it is the people who make organization succeed or failure so it should be the main responsibility of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s chief executive to motivate their company employees so that they feel satisfaction and assure organizational success. The main theme of the author is that human capital play very important role in an organizational effectiveness as compared to financial capital. People are now seen as the Primary source of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. As Lawler (2003) also reported that the treatment with employees basically determines that whether organization Will prosper or not. Organizations are under constant pressure to enhance and improve their performance and are realizing that relationship exists between organizational Performance and employee performance (Roberts, 2005). Rutherford (1990) reported that motivation makes an organization more effective because motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job, so it is important for management to understand how organizations influence the motivation of their individual employees. Total Rewards Management Robert, (2005) defined Reward management as: Ã¢â¬Å"the process of developing and implementing strategies, policies and systems which help the organization to achieve its objectives by obtaining and keeping the people it needs, and by increasing their motivation and commitment.Ã¢â¬ Syedain, (1995)Show MoreRelatedThe Relationship Between Reward, Employee Motivation and Production945 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages M121692 COURSE: HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1 COURSE CODE: HRM 101 LECTURER: MR NYAMUBARWA QUESTION: CRITICALLY ANALYSE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REWARDS,EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY The main thrust of this essay is to critically analyse the relationship between reward ,employee motivation and productivity.Humble (1992) goes on to define motivation as an influence that causes people (employees in this case) to want to behave in a certain way.Productivity is then defined as theRead MoreTypes of Motivation1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation is defined as the accumulation of different process which influence and direct our behavior to achieve a goal (Negussie, 2012). According to Deci, there are two broad classes of motivation, which are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"A person is intrinsically motivated if he performs an activity for no apparent reward except the activity itself. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity because it leads to external rewardsRead MoreExpectancy Theory of Motivation714 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesExpectancy Theory of Motivation, an approach to improving performance. Mark R. Mattox Western Governors University Expectancy Theory of Motivation Ã¢â¬Å"Expectancy Theory - A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.Ã¢â¬ (Judge 07/2012, p. 224) Explanation of the Three ComponentsRead MoreEmployment Benefits And Rewards Like Outings And An Employee s Work Effort As Inputs986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfollowing equation: Adam s Categorized employment benefits and rewards like outings and an employee s work effort as inputs. Input Examples: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The number of hours worked by the employee. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The responsibilities of the employee at work an employee of work duties Ã¢â¬ ¢ The commitment demonstrated by the work employed Ã¢â¬ ¢ The loyalty of a worker Ã¢â¬ ¢ Flexibility of the employee such as undertaking short-term tasks Ã¢â¬ ¢ The support the employee has provided to the organization, colleagues and line managers. OutputRead MoreHow Employees Can Be Motivated To Higher Levels Of Performance By Better Compensation Packages1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to history, the notion of compensation for work pre-dates to sometime between 10,000 BC and 1,000 BC during the Neolithic Revolution (Wikipedia). Back then, salt was used as payment till around 560 BC when coins came into circulation and money was invented (Wikipeida). Money became widely used as the payment for labour. To date, money is still the main medium of exchange between employer and employee. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s highly competitive market, organisations are often faced with increased competitionRead MoreTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation can be a key-contributing factor in employee performance. It is of great importance to an organization to recognize ways in which it can use employee motivation to positively affect employee performance. The methods used by organizations to motivate its employees are essential in determining how they affect employee performance. There are both positive and negative motivational tools that may be explored. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between motivation andRead MoreThe Challenges Of Managers Face Today1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are many different challenges that managers face today that they did not face 50 years ago. Motivation as described by Maccoby consists of 4 R s. Those 4 R s include responsibilities, relationships, reward and reasons. These 4 R s were prevalent in motivation 50 years ago and are the reason why it is harder for companies to keep motivating today. Responsibilities in the workplace 50 years ago were simple, the men would go to work, at jobs that usually involved physical labor, and provideRead MoreThe Importance Of Employee Motivation And Customer Retention Essay1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesquality, customer loyalty, and work efficiency. Indeed, in their research study, Ganesh and Mangalore (2016) established a strong link between employee motivation and customer retention. Therefore, any effort to improve the performance of an organization should begin with addressing human resource issues in the attempt to improve its motivation. Employee motivation has been a central area of focus in organizational behavior issues and studies. Scholars and professionals have been trying to understandRead MoreInfluence Of Organizational Behavior : An Organization977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesworld, every business incorporates employees and every employee has their own motivational values. A successful and efficient manager understands the relations hip between job satisfaction, motivation and performance and has developed a strategy to enhance each one of these organizational performances. These factors can determine the success or failure of an individual, as well as an organization as a whole. Managers must increase their employee satisfaction by sustaining a fair work environment, motivateRead MoreDesigning a Reward System Essay1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDesigning A Reward System ANONYMOUS HSM AU COLLEGE page 1 A good manager or supervisor will implement a reward system. Employee award systems are used for motivation to ones employees, with the goal being not to just meet expectations but to exceed them performing at their best capabilities. This system includes all benefits monetary and non-monetary that proves to be worth something to the employee. Implementing a reward system for a human services organization will help ensure basic